To start off this year’s ECAL in York, I participated in the workshop on Open Ended Evolution: Recent Progress and Future Milestones. The tile and abstract of my mini presentation are as follows:

**Groundlessness avoids openness reduction in hierarchies of emergence **

Tom Froese

One way of measuring open-endedness is in terms of the maintenance or increase of degrees of freedom. If emergence is defined as the collective dynamics resulting from nonlinear coupling between two or more components, then the degrees of freedom of the emergent phenomenon cannot in principle be greater than the sum of degrees of freedom of its underlying components. In practice, it tends to be less than that sum because the collective dynamics are subject to more constraints than the isolated dynamics of each component. The same logic applies to the creation of novelty at each emergent level of organization, thereby rapidly choking off possibilities for open-ended emergence of new layers of complexity. This is not a problem in practice if we consider nature to have sufficient degrees of complexity to begin with (although this is a problem for simulations). I propose that this is not even a problem in principle if we consider nature to be groundless (although this excludes simulations by definition).

The workshop will continue with a follow-up session on Friday.

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